Table of Contents
- Ordainment of Siyam (Fasting)
- Beginning of Siyam
- III. Who Must Fast Ramadan
- Requisites of Siyam
- Concerning the Validity of Siyam
- Consequences of Deliberately Invalidating Fasting
- VII. Days One Must Not Fast
- Deeds Preferred While Fasting
- Qiyam of Ramadan (Tarawih) Prayer
- Night of Qadr
- Days That Are Sunnah To Fast
- Recipients of Zakah
- To Whom Zakah Must Not Be Paid
- ^Idul-Fitr Prayer
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
﴿ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصّـِيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ* أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَاتٍ ۚ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مّـِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۚ وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ ۖ فَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُ ۚ وَأَن تَصُومُوا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ* شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِى أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْءَانُ هُدًى لّـِلنَّاسِ وَبَيّـِنَاتٍ مّـِنَ الْهُدَىٰ وَالْفُرْقَانِ ۚ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مّـِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۗ يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبّـِرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ* وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِى عَنّـِى فَإِنّـِى قَرِيبٌ ۖ أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ ۖ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لِى وَلْيُؤْمِنُوا بِى لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ* أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصّـِيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَىٰ نِسَائِكُمْ ۚ هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَّكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَّهُنَّ ۗ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتَانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنكُمْ ۖ فَالْآنَ بَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَابْتَغُوا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۚ وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصّـِيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِى الْمَسَاجِدِ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ فَلَا تَقْرَبُوهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيّـِنُ اللَّهُ ءَايَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ* ﴾ (البقرة ١٨٣ - ١٨٧)
بسْمِ اللهِ والحمدُ للهِ والصلاةُ والسلامُ على رسولِ الله
Praise to Allah and may Allah raise the rank of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad, the son of ^Abdullah, and protect his ummah (nation) from that which he fears for them.
Allah has endowed us with a great ^ibadah (rite, worship) which helps us to purify ourselves of sins, viz., the Siyam (Fasting) of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic, lunar Hijriyy year. It has its special merits as mentioned in the Qudsiyy Hadith, which is related by al-Bukhariyy:
ورد فى الحديث القدسى الذى أخرجه البخارى: قال الله تعالى:
”كلُّ حسنةٍ بعشْرِ أمثالِها إلى سبعِمِائةِ ضعفٍ إلا الصيامَ فإنه لى وأنا أجزى به.“
It means: The reward of every good deed is multiplied ten up to seven-hundred times, except that of the Siyam which will be multiplied by as many times as Allah wills.
The Fasting of Ramadan was prescribed in the month of Sha^ban (eighth month) of the second Hijriyyah year. Prophet Muhammad fasted nine years after which he died. Fasting Ramadan is a fard ^ayn (personal obligation) that is part of the Obligatory Knowledge, which is known to lay and knowledgeable Muslims. This is known through three major sources of Islamic teachings: The Holy Qur'an, the Glorious Sunnah, and the Ijma^ (Scholarly Consensus).
The Almighty Allah said:
﴿يا أيُّها الذين ءامَنُوا كُتِبَ عَليكُمُ الصّـِيامُ كما كُتِب على الَّذين مِن قبلِكُم لعلَّكُم تَتَّقون﴾ (البقرة، ١٨٣)
It means: O those who believed [i.e., Muslims], Fasting has been ordained upon you as it was ordained upon those [Muslims] before you so that you have piety (al-Baqarah, 183). The Messenger of Allah said:
”بُنِىَ الإسلامُ على خَمْسٍ: شهادةِ أنْ لا إلَهَ إلا اللهُ وأنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رسولُ اللهِ
وإقامِ الصلاةِ وإيتاءِ الزكاةِ وحَجِّ البيتِ وصَوْمِ رَمضانَ.“ رواه البخارىّ ومسلم
It means: Islam is built on five [matters]: Professing that no one is God but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, performing Salah, giving Zakah, performing Hajj (to the Ka^bah), and performing the Siyam of Ramadan. (al-Bukhariyy, Muslim).
Hence, unless one has newly embraced Islam and does not know about fasting Ramadan, or has grown up in a distant place where there were no scholars of Islam to learn from, one is not excused for renouncing this great obligatory worship. Consequently, one becomes an apostate for having renounced the obligation to fast Ramadan. On the other hand, whosoever inexcusably does not fast in Ramadan, but believes in its obligation is not a blasphemer; he is a fasiq, i.e., a Muslim who has committed an enormous sin.
The twelve months of the Islamic, lunar calendar are:
Muharram, Safar, Rabi^ul-'Awwal, Rabi^ul-'Akhir, Jumadal-'Ula, Jumadal-'Akhirah, Rajab, Sha^ban, Ramadan, Shawwal, Dhul-Qa^dah, and Dhul-Hijjah.
مُحَرَّم، صَفَر، ربيعُ الأَوَّل، ربيعُ الآخر، جُمادَى الأُولى، جُمادَى الآخرَة، رَجَب، شَعْبان، رَمَضان، شَوَّال، ذُو القَعْدَة، ذو الحِجَّة.
Each month commences (and hence another terminates) when the hilal is seen, and hence each month is either twenty-nine or thirty days.
The Almighty Allah has ordered us to fast the month of Ramadan upon its confirmation (al-Baqarah, 185).
قال الله تعالى: ﴿فَمَنْ شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْه﴾ (البقرة، ١٨٥)
Prophet Muhammad forbade us to start fasting one or two days ahead of Ramadan; he ordered us to start fasting upon seeing the hilal of Ramadan, and if not seen, upon the completion of thirty days of Sha^ban, and to stop fasting when the hilal of Shawwal is seen [or else fast thirty days] (al-Bukhariyy, Muslim).
قال رسولُ الله : ”لا تَقَدَّمُوا رَمَضانَ بِيومٍ أو يَومَيْنِ، صُومُوا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ وأَفْطِرُوا لرؤيته، فإنْ غُمَّ عليكُم فأَكْمِلُوا عِدَّةَ شَعْبانَ ثلاثين يومًا.“ رواه البخارىّ ومسلم
Hence, the obligation of fasting Ramadan starts by either of two things:
(a) the completion of thirty days of Sha^ban, or
(b) seeing the hilal of the new moon on the night following the 29th day of Sha^ban. Consequently, the following day is the first day of Ramadan. As for Muslims who did not see the hilal themselves, it is obligatory upon them to start fasting upon the statement of an ^adl (trustworthy) Muslim man who saw it. He says: I testify that I saw the hilal of Ramadan. It is not enough to say that he knew about it. Ibn ^Umar, radiyallahu ^anhuma, said:
روى أبو داود عن ابن عمر رضى الله عنهما قال:
”أخبرتُ النبىَّ أَنّـِى رأيتُ الهلالَ فصامَ وأَمَرَ الناسَ بالصّـِيام.“ صحَّحَه ابنُ حِبَّان
It means: I told the Prophet that I saw the hilal (of Ramadan). He fasted and ordered the people to fast (Abu Dawud, Ibn Hibban). One (individually) is allowed to start fasting when persons such as a boy, a fasiq, or a woman told one that they saw the hilal, if one believed them, or else one must complete thirty days of Sha^ban. According to Imam ash-Shafi^iyy, once the judge in a town confirms the Siyam, the people of that town and of the neighboring areas where the places of sunrise and sunset are the same as that of the town per se must start fasting. However, according to Imam Abu Hanifah, once the people of a certain area know of the confirmation of Siyam in another area, then it is obligatory upon them to start fasting, irrespective of how far that area of confirmed sighting was. Accordingly, it is obligatory upon the people of the far west to fast upon the confirmation of fasting in the east and vice versa.
The Ijma^ states that the word of the astronomers, astrologers, and calculators is not recognized concerning sighting Ramadan and other months. Even the person who calculates for himself must not fast upon that calculation. In the sahih and mashhur Hadith [mentioned before], the Messenger of Allah said:
”صُومُوا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ وأَفْطِرُوا لرؤيته.“ رواه البخارىّ ومسلم
It means: Fast upon seeing the hilal and end the fasting upon seeing it. This is stated in the Four Schools and others. Here are some of their sayings: In the book, “Asnal-Matalib, Sharh Rawd-it-Talib” in the Shafi^iyy Fiqh, it is stated that there is no regard for the saying of the astrologer. Hence, fasting is not obligatory and is prohibited upon his saying. The meaning of guidance by the stars in the ayah is the guidance in [knowing] the evidences of the Qiblah and in traveling. In the Malikiyy book, “Hashiyat-ud-Dusuqiyy ^Alash-Sharh-il-Kabir li Mukhtasari Khalil”, it is stated that Ramadan is not confirmed by the saying of an astrologer, for himself or for others. In the Hambaliyy book, “Kashshaf-ul-Qina^”, it is stated that if someone intended to fast the thirtieth of Sha^ban without an Islamic evidence like seeing the hilal of Ramadan, the completion of Sha^ban, or [the inability to see it because of] clouds or dust and the like preventing seeing the hilal, like if he fasted upon calculations or astrology even if they were right many times, or with a clear sky and the hilal showed up (in the daytime), his fasting is not valid, because it lacks the Islamic evidence. In the Hanafiyy book, “Hashiyat Ibn ^Abidin”, it is stated that there is no regard for the saying of those who use calculations for obligating fasting Ramadan upon the people. Moreover, in the Hanafiyy book, “al-Mi^raj”, it is stated that their saying is not regarded by the Ijma^ and it is not allowed for the astrologer to follow his own calculation. Then the author said: and because of that, we said that the Messenger does not regard the calculation, but [in this issue] he canceled it all. That is, the Messenger of Allah abolished the reliance on calculations in fasting by saying.
”إنَّا أُمَّةٌ أُمّـِيَّةٌ لا نكتُب ولا نَحْسب، الشَّهر هكذا وهكذا.“ رواه البخارىّ ومسلم
It means: We are [generally] an illiterate ummah (nation); we do not write or calculate. The month is either twenty-nine or thirty days (al-Bukhariyy and Muslim). That is, we rely on sighting or completion, which in turn relies on sighting. Although at the time of the Prophet there were astronomers among the Arabs, the Messenger of Allah did not make the rule dependent on their calculations. He left the matter to what is easy in the Religion, which is to rely on seeing the hilal to start the fasting and to end it. However, if the clouds prevent them from seeing the hilal, he prescribed for them to complete Sha^ban thirty days, i.e., relying on the previous sighting of the hilal of Sha^ban.
Fasting Ramadan is not obligatory upon every person. It is obligatory upon the person who is:
- Muslim; A person must be a Muslim or else his good deeds would not be valid and are not accepted by Allah. On the Day of Judgement, the non-Muslim will be punished for not becoming Muslim and for not performing the obligations, one of which fasting Ramadan.
- pubescent; Although not obligated to fast, a seven-year old child who is mumayyiz must be ordered by the guardian to fast if able to do so.
- sane; Sanity is a prerequisite to holding one responsible for one's deeds, words, and convictions. Fasting Ramadan is not obligatory upon the insane.
- able to fast. Any person who would be harmed by fasting due to (e.g.) sickness or old age is not obligated to fast. In fact, it is sinful to fast when it is harmful to do so. The person who is traveling about 27 miles or more is permitted not to fast, provided that his traveling is not sinful (al-Baqarah, 184).
قال الله تعالى: ﴿فَمَنْ كان مِنكُم مَريضًا أو على سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِن أيامٍ أُخَرَ﴾ (البقرة، ١٨٤)
However, if one does not want to fast the first day of one's traveling, one must leave one's hometown before Fajr (dawn) with the intention of traveling. Moreover, a nursing or pregnant woman is not obligated to fast when she is afraid to harm herself and/or her baby (at-Tirmidhiyy):
روى الترمذىّ وقال حديث حسن عن أنس بن مالك الكَعبِى قولَ رسول الله :
"أُدْنُ أُحَدّثْكَ عن الصَّوْمِ أو الصّـِيام. إنَّ اللهَ تعالى وَضَعَ عن المُسافِر الصومَ وشَطْرَ الصَّلاةِ وعن الحامِلِ أو المُرْضِعِ الصومَ أو الصيامَ." أخرجه أبو داود والنسائىّ.
During her menstrual or postpartum bleeding, it is sinful and invalid for a woman to fast.
Siyam (Fasting) is abstaining from inserting any object with a volume through an open inlet, such as the mouth and the eliminatory outlets, into the head, intestines, etc. during the daytime having had at night the intention, in the heart, to fast the following day. The day starts at Fajr (dawn) and ends at Maghrib (sunset). Fajr is the horizontal whiteness (illumination) appearing in the eastern horizon. At the beginning, Fajr is mixed with a slight redness. Later, this redness increases. Maghrib is the total disappearance of the whole disc of the sun in the western horizon. Fasting Ramadan is valid when the following requisites are satisfied:
According to Imam ash-Shafi^iyy, one must have, in the heart, on every night the intention to fast the following day of Ramadan (an-Nasa'iyy):
روى النَّسائىُّ عن حفصةَ رضى الله عنها أن رسولَ الله قال:
”مَنْ لم يُبَيّـِتِ الصّيامَ من الليلِ فلا صِيامَ له.“
One says in the heart: I am intending to fast tomorrow of Ramadan to fulfill the obligatory fasting of Ramadan this year, or the like. Nevertheless, according to some mujtahids, it suffices to have, on the night preceding the first day of Ramadan, the intention to fast thirty days of Ramadan of that year. However, for optional fasting, one may defer the intention until before the Zawal time provided one has not committed any invalidator of fasting. If the menstrual or postpartum bleeding of a woman stops at night, then she must intend to fast the following day. The Ghusl is not required to start fasting, but to start praying. Whoever slept at night and woke up after Fajr without having had the intention to fast is obligated to abstain from whatever a fasting person abstains (ad-Daraqutniyy, al-Bayhaqiyy).
”مَنْ لم يُبيّـِتِ الصيامَ قبلَ طُلوعِ الفَجرِ فلا صِيامَ له.“ رواه الدَّارَقُطْنِىُّ والبَيْهَقِىُّ فى السُّنَن عن عائشة
Sleeping after Maghrib with the intention to fast and then getting up after the Maghrib of the following day does not invalidate one’s fasting of that day.
One must abstain from eating, drinking, or inserting into the head, stomach, etc. any substance with a volume through an open inlet such as the mouth during the daytime. Moreover, during the day one must abstain from intentional vomiting, copulation, or ejaculation by physical contact or masturbation. Consequently, one must know the extremes of the day: Fajr (start) and Maghrib (end).
Here are some cases in which fasting is invalidated, and correspondingly others in which it remains valid:
Fasting is Invalidated by
Fasting is NOT Invalidated by
1. Having doubt while intending to fast whether Fajr is or is not in;
• Having doubt after Fajr whether or not one has had the intention before Fajr.
• Having doubt after having had the intention, whether it was done when Fajr was in;
• Having doubt about the intention after the sunset of the same day or after a few days.
2. Deliberate eating or drinking. It is sinful to break one’s fasting before one is sure Maghrib has set in (al-Baqarah, 187).
﴿ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصّـِيَامَ إلَى اللَّيْلِ﴾ (البقرة، ١٨٧)
• Inadvertent eating or drinking (al-Bukhariyy);
”مَنْ نَسِىَ وهو صائمٌ فَأَكَلَ أَوْ شَرِبَ فَلْيُتِمَّ صَوْمَهُ، فَإنَّما أَطْعَمَهُ اللهُ وَسَقَاهُ.“ رواه البخارىّ
• Tasting food while cooking without swallowing it.
3. Swallowing the phlegm which reached the inside of the mouth, in the daytime, while able to spit it out.
• Swallowing the phlegm which reached below where the letter ح (ha') is pronounced. However, according to Imam Abu Hanifah, one's fasting is still valid even if the phlegm was swallowed after having reached the tongue.
4. Emitting the saliva out of the mouth and then inserting and swallowing it, in the daytime, knowing about its judgement.
• Swallowing the saliva while inside the mouth, even if it were done on purpose.
5. Deliberate vomiting whether or not some was swallowed;
• Swallowing the saliva stained, e.g., after an inadvertent vomiting and before washing the mouth, in the daytime.
• Inadvertent vomiting, provided it was not swallowed (Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'iyy, at-Tirmidhiyy, Ibn Majah).
رَوَى أَصْحابُ السُّنَنِ قَوْلَ رسولِ الله :
”مَنْ ذَرَعَهُ القَىْءُ وَهُوَ صائمٌ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ قَضَاءٌ. وَمَنِ اسْتَقاءَ فَلْيَقْضِ.“
6. Smoking cigarettes, or swallowing, in the daytime, saliva mixed with the tobacco from cigarettes smoked before Fajr.
• Inhaling the smoke of someone else's cigarette, or the dust of the road; smelling roses, perfumes, etc.
7. Using suppositories, enema, douche (penile, vaginal, anal), nosedrops, and eardrops, if the substance reaches the interior parts of the body (in the daytime).
• Using eyedrops, or (according to some scholars) eardrops.
• Using hypodermic, intramuscular, and intravenous injections.
8. Committing blasphemy of any type, in the daytime.
(One must always avoid all the types of apostasy by not uttering, doing, or believing any blasphemous matter, such as cussing Allah, prophets, or Islam, or worshipping other than Allah, or believing in the possibility of having a prophet after Muhammad or renouncing (in the heart or by the tongue) any basic rule of Islam. There are many examples of blasphemy of which one should be aware.)
• Committing blasphemy at night, then returning to Islam and having the intention to fast before Fajr.
• Ejaculating after having had physical contact, such as kissing deliberately (in the daytime).
• Ejaculation, in the daytime, due to looking, thinking, or dreaming;
• Ejaculating by masturbation or fondling while forgetting about fasting; but it is haram to masturbate;
• Kissing which arouses the desire, but it is haram to do it;
• Waking up as junub as a result of copulation or otherwise. One must take the Ghusl to perform Salah (al-Bukhariyy).
عن عائشةَ رضى الله عنها:
”كان رسولُ الله يدركه الفجرُ وهو جُنُبٌ من أهله ثم يغتَسِلُ ويصومُ.“ رواه البخارىّ
10. Deliberate copulation, in the daytime, even if ejaculation did not occur provided one knows it is haram to do it, is not forced to do so, and has not forgotten about fasting.
• Copulating forgetting about fasting, or not knowing it is haram to do it, because one is a new Muslim or has grown up in a place distant from the scholars of Islam.
11. Losing consciousness during the whole day.
• Fainting for a part of the day.
12. Becoming insane for any period of the day.
• Recovering from insanity before Fajr and intending to fast the following day.
13. Menstrual or postpartum bleeding in the daytime.
• Menstrual or postpartum bleeding after the day is over.
Whosoever inexcusably invalidates one's fasting (cases 1-10) must abstain from eating, drinking, etc. the rest of the day. By committing blasphemy (case 8), one must immediately return to Islam by uttering the Shahadatayn. One version is: "I profess that no one is God but Allah and (I profess) that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah", with the purpose of clearing oneself of the committed blasphemy to return to Islam. In all cases (cases 1-13), one must (at least) make up the obligatory days which were invalidated. In case 12, only when one has lost one's sanity by deliberately taking in some material, one must, after recovery, make up the missed days. Deliberate intoxication by consuming a substance such as alcohol invalidates one’s fasting.
Depending on how one has invalidated one's fasting, one or two of the following things will be inflicted:
- Qada’ (Make-up)
It is making up, after Ramadan, every missed day in Ramadan (Ahmad, al-Bayhaqiyy).
روى أحمدُ والبيهقىُّ قولَ رسول الله :
”إنْ كانَ قضاءً من رمضانَ فاقْضِى يومًا مَكانَهُ. وإن كان تَطَوُّعًا فإنْ شِئْتِ فاقْضِيه، وإنْ شئتِ فلا تَقْضِيهِ.“
It is giving the Muslim poor, for every missed day of Ramadan, two cupped average-sized handfuls of wheat, rice, or the like. According to Imam Abu Hanifah, one may give the poor two meals such as a lunch and dinner, or else their monetary value (al-Baqarah, 184).
قال الله تعالى: ﴿وعَلى الذِينَ يُطِيقونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعامُ مِسْكينٍ﴾ (البقرة، ١٨٤)
- Kaffarah (Expiation)
It comprises three levels, only one of which is required, but not to be done unless the previous level was not feasible. For every invalidated day, it is:
(a) freeing a Muslim slave; if unable
(b) fasting two consecutive lunar months other than the missed day. The consecution must be observed or else one starts a new set of two consecutive lunar months; if unable
(c) feeding sixty poor Muslims, each two cupped average-sized handfuls of wheat, rice, or the like (al-Bukhariyy, Muslim),
فى الصحيحين عن أبى هريرة رضى الله عنه: جاءَ رجلٌ إلى النبىّ فقال: هَلَكْتُ. قال: ”وما أهْلكَكَ؟“ قال: واقَعْتُ امْرَأَتِى فى رمضانَ. قال: ”هل تَجِدُ ما تُعتِقُ رَقَبَةً؟“ قال: لا. قال: ”فهل تستطيعُ أن تصومَ شهرَيْنِ مُتَتابِعَيْنِ؟“ قال: لا. قال: ”فهل تجد ما تُطْعِمُ سِتّـِينَ مِسكينًا؟“ قال: لا. ثُم جَلس. فأتَى النبىُّ بِعَرَقٍ فيه تَمْرٌ. فقال: ”تَصَدَّقْ بهذا.“ فقال: على أفقَرَ مِنَّا يا رسولَ الله! فَوَاللهِ، ما بَينَ لابَتَيْها أهلُ بيتٍ أَحوَجُ إليه مِنَّا. فَضَحِكَ رسولُ الله حتى بَدَتْ أنيابُه. ثم قال: ”اذْهَبْ فَأَطْعِمْهُ أهْلَكَ.“
According to Abu Hanifah, one may give each of the sixty poor Muslims two meals or their monetary value. If none of the above could be done, there is no substitute.
Given next, are examples of invalidating fasting and their consequences:
Manner of Invalidating One's Fasting
(a) Illness and traveling (al-Baqarah, 185);
﴿وَمَنْ كان مَريضًا أو على سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِن أيامٍ أُخَر﴾ (البقرة، ١٨٥)
(b) Menstrual or postpartum bleeding (al-Bukhariyy, Muslim);
فى الصحيحين عن عائشةَ رضى الله عنها قالت:
كان يُصيبُنا ذَلك [أى الحَيْضُ] فنُؤْمَرُ بقضاءِ الصَّومِ ولا نُؤْمَرُ بقضاءِ الصلاة.
(c) Fear of a pregnant or nursing woman to harm herself or herself and her baby;
(d) Committing blasphemy, then returning to Islam;
(e) No excuse (Ibn Majah)
عن أبى هُريرةَ رضى الله عنه عن النبىِّ قال:
”مَن أَفْطَرَ يومًا من رمضانَ فى غَيرِ رُخْصَةٍ رَخَّصَها اللهُ لم يَقْضِ عنه صيامُ الدَّهْرِ وإنْ صَامَهُ.“ رواه أصحاب السنن وابن ماجه
*Note that only in cases (d) and (e) one is sinful.
(a) Lifetime unrecoverable sickness; and
(b) Old age at which fasting is pernicious (an-Nasa’iyy).
روى النَّسائى عن ابن عباس فى قوله تعالى:
﴿وعلى الذين يُطيقونه فِديةٌ طعامُ مسكينٍ﴾ أنه قال:
لا يُرَخَّصُ إلا لِلَّذِى لا يُطيقُ الصيامَ أو مَريضٍ لا يُشْفَى.
(a) Fear of a pregnant or nursing woman to harm her baby (only); and
(b) Deferring making up missed days of previous Ramadan until the subsequent Ramadan came. Fidyah recurs for every inexcusable deferment.
Qada’ and Fidyah
(a) Deliberate copulation, in the daytime, even if ejaculation did not occur, provided one knows its judgement, is not forced, and is not forgetting about fasting. It is a great sin to do so. The kaffarah is required of the man only. One kaffarah is inflicted for every invalidated day, even if copulation occurred more than once per day.
Qada’ and Kaffarah
There are certain days the fasting of which is sinful and invalid; these are:
- The Days of ^Id-ul-Fitr and ^Id-ul-'Ad-ha (Muslim).
عن أبى هريرة رضى الله عنه أنَّ رسولَ الله نَهَى عن صِيامِ يومَين: يَومِ الأَضْحَى ويومِ الفِطْر. رواه مسلم
- The Days of Tashriq, the three days following ^Id-ul-'Adha Day (Muslim).
عن نُبَيْشَة الهُذَلى قال: قال رسولُ الله : ”أَيَّامُ التَّشْرِيقِ أيامُ أَكْلٍ وشُرْبٍ.“ رواه مسلم
- The day of doubt, which is the thirtieth of Sha^ban when someone, whose word is not recognized such as boys and irreligious persons, talk about having seen the hilal of Ramadan (at-Tirmidhiyy, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'iyy).
عن صِلَة بن زُفَر قال: كُنا عند عمَّارِ بنِ ياسِر فأُتِىَ بشاةٍ مَصْلِيَّةٍ فقال: كُلوا. فتَنَحَّى بعضُ القومِ فقال إنى صائمٌ. فقال عمار: مَن صامَ اليومَ الذى يَشُكُّ فيه الناسُ فقد عصَى أبا القاسِمِ . رواه الترمذىّ وقال حديث حسن صحيح. وأخرجه أبو داود والنسائىّ.
- The second half of Sha^ban (at-Tirmidhiyy),
عن أبى هريرة رضى الله عنه قال: قال رسول الله : “إذا بقِىَ نصفٌ مِن شعبانَ فلا تَصُومُوا.” رواه الترمذىّ وقال حديث حسن صحيح.
unless one has started fasting during the first half or that coincided with some optional days one is used to fasting such as Mondays, or one is fasting for a qada’, nadhr, or kaffarah (at-Tirmidhiyy, al-Bukhariyy, Muslim).
قال رسول الله : ”لا تَقَدَّمُوا شهرَ رمضانَ بصيامٍ إلا أنْ يُوافِقَ ذلك صومًا كان يصُومُه أَحَدُكُم.“ رواه الترمذىّ.
عن عائشة رضى الله عنها قالت: ما كنت أقضى ما يكون علىَّ من رمضانَ إلا فى شعبانَ حتى تُوُفّـِىَ رسولُ الله . رواه الترمذىّ وقال حديث حسن صحيح. وأخرجه البخارىّ ومسلم.
Some of the deeds that are preferred to do in Ramadan are:
- Breaking the fast the soonest, after one is sure Maghrib has set in and before performing Maghrib prayer, by eating dates, and if not available by drinking water (Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhiyy).
عن أنسٍ رضى الله عنه قال: كان رسولُ الله يُفْطِرُ قبل أن يُصَلّـِىَ على رُطَبَاتٍ. فإنْ لم تَكُنْ رُطَباتٌ فَتُمَيْراتٍ. فإنْ لم تكنْ تميراتٌ حَسَا حَسَواتٍ مِن ماءٍ. رواه أبو داود والترمذى وقال حديث حسن
It is preferred to say what the Prophet said:
عن مُعاذ بنِ زُهرةَ أنه بلغه أنَّ النبىَّ كان إذا أفطر قال: ”اللهمَّ لك صُمتُ وعلى رِزقِكَ أَفْطَرْتُ.“ رواه أبو داود
عن ابن عمرَ قال: كان رسولُ الله إذا أفطر قال: ”ذَهبَ الظَّمأُ، وابْتلَّتِ العُروقُ، وثَبَتَ الأَجْرُ إن شاءَ اللَّهُ.“ رواه أبو داود
These mean: O Allah, to You I fasted, and with Your provision I broke my fasting. Thirst is gone, the veins are wet, and the reward is confirmed, God willing (Abu Dawud). Moreover, it is sunnah to delay the sahur meal to a time close to Fajr (Ahmad) by taking in at least a sip of water for the blessing (Muslim).
قال رسولُ الله : ”لا تَزالُ أُمَّتِى بخيرٍ ما عَجَّلُوا الفِطْرَ وأَخَّرُوا السَّحُورَ.“ رواه أحمد فى مسنده
قال رسول الله : ”تَسَحَّروا فإن فى السَّحورِ بَرَكةً.“ رواه مسلم
- Refraining from backbiting, cussing, and the like is more emphasized while fasting (al-Bukhariyy, Muslim).
روى البخارىّ ومسلم من حديث أبى هريرة رضى الله عنه عن الرسول : ”إنما الصَّومُ جُنَّةٌ. فإذا كان أحدُكم صائمًا فلا يَرْفُثْ ولا يَجْهَلْ، وإنِ امرؤٌ قاتَلَهُ أو شاتَمَهُ فَلْيَقُلْ إنّـِى صائمٌ إنّـِى صائمٌ.“
- Paying the optional charity to the poor, reciting the Qur'an, staying in the mosque with the intention of i^tikaf, especially during the last ten days of Ramadan as reported about the Prophet by Ibn ^Umar (Muslim).
عن ابن عمرَ أن النبىَّ كان يعتكفُ فى العَشْرِ الأواخِرِ من رمضانَ. رواه مسلم
- Inviting those who are fasting to join in the 'iftar meal, thereby earning a reward similar to those of the fed people without them losing any of their own reward (at-Tirmidhiyy).
قال رسولُ الله : ”مَنْ فطَّرَ صائمًا كان له مثلُ أجرِهِ غيرَ أنه لا يَنقُص من أجر الصائمِ شىءٌ.“ رواه الترمذىّ
On every night of Ramadan, it is recommended to perform an optional prayer after the ^Isha’ prayer. It is called the Qiyam of Ramadan prayer. Some call it also the Tarawih prayer. The Messenger of Allah said:
”صلاةُ اللَّيلِ مَثنَى مَثنَى. فإذا خَشِىَ أَحدُكمُ الصُّبحَ فَلْيُوتِرْ بِركعةٍ.“ رواه البخارىّ ومسلم.
It means: The prayer at night is (preferably) two rak^ahs at a time. If one fears the dawn will break, let one pray one rak^ah of Witr (al-Bukhariyy, Muslim). The Messenger of Allah also said:
”أَوْتِرُوا بِخَمسٍ أو بِسبعٍ أو بتِسعٍ أو بإحدَى عشْرةَ أو بأكثرَ من ذلك.“ رواه ابن حِبَّان وابنُ المنذر والحاكم عن أبى هريرة.
It means: Pray the Witr after praying five, seven, nine, eleven, or more rak^ahs (Ibn Hibban, Ibnul-Mundhir, al-Hakim).
These two hadiths signify that the Muslim may pray after ^Isha’ as many rak^ahs as desired, without specifying a maximum number. Lady ^A’ishah, may Allah raise her rank, said:
”ما زادَ رسولُ الله فى صلاة الليل فى رمضانَ ولا فى غيرِه علَى إحدَى عشْرةَ ركعة.“ رواه البخارىّ
It means: The Messenger of Allah did not pray at night more than eleven rak^ahs in Ramadan or otherwise. This hadith only tells what Lady A’ishah witnessed the Prophet do. It does not mean that one cannot pray more than eleven rak^ahs. This is substantiated by the hadith of Imam ^Aliyy narrated by Hafidh al-Khila^iyy that the Prophet prayed sixteen rak^ahs at night. Hafidh al-^Iraqiyy said that its chain is good.
It became conventional among many to label the twenty rak^ahs followed by the three Witr rak^ahs the Tarawih prayer. As for the Qiyam of Ramadan, Imam ash-Shafi^iyy said: “There is no limit for the number of rak^ahs the Qiyam of Ramadan prayer has.” Hence, let the intention in the heart be: “I now pray the Qiyam of Ramadan prayer.” It is also good to pray it in congregation. The practice in Islamic countries is to recite the thirty Juz’s of the Qur’an in the congregational Qiyam of Ramadan prayer, at the rate of one Juz’ every night.
The scholars of Islam have four sayings as to why the Night of Qadr was named as such. The first is that Qadr means greatness. The second is that it is a night when the Earth is very crowded with angels who come down to Earth. The third is that it is a night in which a great Book came down; in it a great mercy and great angels come down. The fourth is that it is a night of great honor.
Allah said in the Qur’an (al-Qadr, 1-5):
﴿ إنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِى لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ* وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ* لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مّـِنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ* تَنَزَّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبّـِهِم مّـِنْ كُلّ أَمْرٍ* سَلَامٌ هِىَ حَتَّىٰ مَطْلَعِ الْفَجْرِ* ﴾
The tafsir (meaning) of this honorable Surah is given below:
- إنَّا أَنْزَلناهُ فى لَيْلةِ القَدْرِ
means: Allah sent the Qur’an down on the Night of Qadr. On that night, Allah ordered Jibril to take the Qur’an from the Guarded Tablet (al-Lawh-ul-Mahfudh). Jibril took it in its totality down to a place in the lowest heaven called Bayt-ul-^Izzah. From Bayt-ul-^Izzah, Jibril came down with the Qur’an in parts upon the Prophet, according to the events and reasons. On the day following that night, the first five verses from Surat-ul-^Alaq were revealed to the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam.
It is mentioned in a hadith:
عن واثلة بن الأسقع عن النبىّ قال: ”أُنزِلت التوراةُ لستٍّ مَضَيْنَ من رَمَضانَ، وأُنزل الإنجيلُ لثلاثَ عشرةَ خَلَتْ من رمضانَ، وأُنزل الزَّبُورُ لثمان عشرةَ خَلَتْ من رمضان، وأُنزلَ القرءانُ لأَربعٍ وعِشْرينَ خَلَتْ من رمضانَ.“
that the Tawrah was sent down on the sixth night of Ramadan, Injil on the thirteenth night of Ramadan, and Qur’an on the twenty-fourth night of Ramadan. This hadith informs us that the Qur’an was sent down on the twenty-fourth night of Ramadan. The Qur’an tells us it was the Night of Qadr. It happened that on that year, the twenty-fourth night of Ramadan was the Night of Qadr. It is not definite that the night of Qadr would be the night of the twenty-seventh or twenty-ninth, but most likely it would be. The Messenger of Allah said:
روى البخارىّ عن ابن عباس أنَّ رسولَ الله قال: ”الْتَمِسُوها فى العَشْرِ الأَواخِرِ من رَمَضَانَ.“
It means: Seek it in the last ten nights of Ramadan. This is because it would most likely be in the last ten nights. This does not exclude it being in other than those last ten nights. It may be on the first, second, or other nights. The wisdom of concealing it is that in order to catch it, people would be diligent in worship throughout all the nights of Ramadan. The Qur’an was not revealed according to the present order. After twenty-three years of Revelation, the Qur’an was revealed in total to the Prophet. He taught his companions to recite it in the order which has been known to Muslims since the time of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. Reciting the parts of Qur’an in this order was not ijtihad from the companions, but mere execution and following of the Prophet’s orders.
- وَما أَدْرَيـكَ ما لَيْلةُ القَدْرِ
means: The Night of Qadr has a great status.
- ليلةُ القَدرِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ ألْفِ شَهْرٍ
means: Doing good deeds on that night is better than doing them in one thousand months (that do not have that night); one thousand months are approximately 83.3 years. The Night of Qadr has signs. Among its signs are seeing a light that Allah creates, other than the light of the sun, the moon, and electricity. Others are seeing the trees making sujud, or the sun rising in the morning with soft light, or hearing the voices of the angels and shaking hands with them, or seeing them in their original form with many wings. Seeing some of those signs indicates seeing it. Seeing it in a dream indicates good things. However, it is not as good as seeing it while awake. Whoever does not see it in the dream or while awake, but is diligent in praying and obedience on that night shall be granted, from its great blessing, the reward of worshipping Allah on that night. The Prophet said:
عن أبى هُرَيرةَ رضى اللهُ عنه عن النبىّ قال: ”مَنْ قامَ لَيلةَ القَدْرِ إِيمانًا واحْتِسابًا غُفِرَ لهُ ما تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنْبِهِ.“ رواه البخارىّ ومسلم
It means: Whoever prays on the Night of Qadr with faith and seeking reward from Allah, then his old (small) sins will be forgiven. To get this reward one prays, and the number of rak^ahs could be a little or a lot. It is better to recite a lot while standing in Salah than to make long sujud with little reciting. Making du^a’ at the moment of seeing it is a sign of the du^a’ being fulfilled. Many Muslims have been blessed with obtaining what they asked on that night.
- تنَزَّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ والرُّوحُ فيها بإذْنِ رَبّــِهِمْ مِنْ كُلّ أَمْرٍ❊
On that night, Jibril and the angels come down with what Allah ordered and willed to happen for the next year, such as the givings of the people and how long they will live. A hadith is related about the Messenger of Allah saying:
يُروَى عن رسول الله أنه قال: ”إذا كانتْ ليلةُ القَدرِ نَزَلَ جِبريلُ فى كَبْكَبَةٍ من الملَــئكةِ يُصَلُّون ويُسَلّـِمون على كلّ عبدٍ قائمٍ أو قاعِدٍ يَذْكُرُ اللهَ فيََنزِلون مِن لَدُنْ غُروبِ الشَّمسِ إلى طلوعِ الفَجْرِ.“ رواه السيوطىّ فى الجامع الكبير.
It means: On the Night of Qadr, Jibril comes down with a group of angels; they say salam to every one who is standing in prayer or sitting making dhikr; they come down from sunset until Fajr appears. (As-Suyutiyy)
- سَلامٌ هِىَ حتَّى مَطْلَعِ الفَجْرِ
means: This night has peace, goodness, and blessing upon the righteous and obedient Muslims. Moreover, Satan cannot do any evil or harm. This safety lasts until Fajr.
^A’ishah asked the Prophet what du^a’ she should say if she knew it was the Night of Qadr. He told her to say:
عن عائِشَةَ رضى اللهُ عنها قالتْ: قلتُ يا رسولَ اللهِ أَرأَيْتَ إِنْ عَلِمْتُ ليلةَ القدرِ ما أقولُ فيها؟ قال قُولِى: ”اللَهُمَّ إنكَ عَفُوٌّ تُحِبُّ العَفْوَ فَاعْفُ عنّـِى.“ رواه الترمذىّ وقال: حديث حسن صحيح
It means: O Allah, You are the One Who pardons and loves to pardon. I ask You to pardon me (at-Tirmidhiyy). The Prophet’s most frequent du^a’ in Ramadan and otherwise was:
”رَبَّنا ءَاتِنَا فى الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وفى الآخِرةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذابَ النََّارِ.“
It means: O our Lord, give us good things in this world and good things in the Hereafter and protect us from the torture of Hellfire.
It is sunnah to fast the following days:
- The second through the seventh of Shawwal consecutively, or any six days of this month.
- The ninth and tenth (^Ashura') of Muharram. “روى مسلم: ”يُكَفّـِرُ السنةَ الماضية
- The ninth of Dhul-Hijjah (^Arafat Day). “روى مسلم: ”يُكَفّـِرُ السنةَ الماضيةَ والباقية
- Every Monday and/or Thursday of the week.
- The thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth of every Hijriyy month; and others.
It is sinful to inexcusably interrupt an obligatory fasting. However, one may terminate an optional fasting at any time one wishes (at-Tirmidhiyy).
قال رسولُ الله قال: ”الصائمُ المُتَطَوّعُ أَميرُ نَفْسِه، إن شَاءَ صَامَ وَإن شَاءَ أَفْطَرَ.“ رواه الترمذىّ
Zakat-ul-Fitr is obligatory upon every Muslim who, on the night after and on the day of ^Id-ul-Fitr, has more than what one and whom one supports need. One must pay four two-cupped, average-sized handfuls of wheat, rice, etc. to those who deserve Zakah (see Recipients of Zakah, below) for every Muslim one supports (plus oneself) such as one's Muslim wives, children who are not pubescent, poor parents, etc. Moreover, it must be paid for any Muslim (under support) who was alive during part of Ramadan and part of Shawwal (Muslim).
عن ابن عُمرَ رضى الله عنهما أن رسولَ الله فَرَضَ زَكاةَ الفِطرِ مِن رمضانَ على كُلّ نَفْسٍ من المسلمينَ حُرّ أو عَبدٍ أو رَجُلٍ أو امرأةٍ صغيرٍ أو كبيرٍ صاعًا من تَمْرٍ أو صاعًا من شَعِيرٍ. رواه مسلم
On the other hand, the Muslim is not required to pay for a non-Muslim (father, e.g.).
Zakat-ul-Fitr must be paid before the sunset of the day of ^Id-ul-Fitr, and it is haram (sinful) to delay it until after that without an excuse. It is sunnah (rewardably recommended) to pay it before Salat-ul-^Id (Muslim).
عن عبدِ الله بنِ عمرَ رضى اللهُ عنهما أنَّ رسولَ الله أَمَرَ بزكاةِ الفطرِ أَنْ تُؤَدَّى قبلَ خُروجِ الناسِ إلى الصلاة. رواه مسلم
However, one may start paying it from the first day of Ramadan with the proper conditions.
It is obligatory to have the intention in the heart when one sets the Zakah money aside or upon paying it. One would say in one’s heart: This is the Zakah of Fitr for myself and dependents, and the like. The parent must ask the permission of his own pubescent son, e.g., to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr for him.
Zakah must be paid only to those (eight) types of people mentioned in the Qur'an: al-fuqara', al-masakin, al-^amilun ^alayha, al-mu'allafatu qulubuhum, ar-riqab, al-gharimun, fi sabilillah, and ibn-us-sabil (at-Tawbah, 60).
قال اللهُ عزَّ وجلَّ: ﴿إنَّما الصَّدَقاتُ للفُقَراءِ والمساكينِ والعَامِلين عليها وفِى الرّقابِ والغارِمينَ وفِى سبيلِ اللهِ وَابنِ السبيلِ﴾ (التوبة ٦٠)
- Al-Fuqara’: Those are the Muslims who do not have financial support, money, or a lawful job by which they could meet their basic and appropriate needs of clothing, food, and lodging and those of their dependents (wife, children, poor parents). Al-Fuqara’ have only that which meets less than half of their needs. Those include the persons such as those who need $10.00, but they earn or obtain less than $5.00.
- Al-Masakin: Those are the Muslims who meet their basic needs but not appropriately, such as those who need $10.00 and obtain (work, support) $8.00.
- Al-^Amiluna ^alayha: Those are the persons hired by the Muslim Caliph to collect, take care, and distribute Zakah, but are not given salaries. Instead they are paid from Zakah money.
- Al-Mu’allafatu Qulubuhum: Those include the persons who embraced Islam but they are not used to the Muslims yet, and if paid their faith is strengthened. Also included are those who are dignified among their people and if paid, others like them may be encouraged to become Muslims.
- Ar-Riqab: Those are the Muslim slaves who have agreement with their masters to obtain their freedom after paying a certain amount of money. When unable to pay, they are given from Zakah money to help them obtain their freedom.
- Al-Gharimun: Those are any of three types of Muslims:
(a) Those who borrowed money for their own permissible use and could not pay their due debts. Those are given as much as their debts are. Persons who spent the borrowed money sinfully and then repented are also given money to pay back their debts.
(b) Those who borrowed money and paid it to end or prevent conflict between (say) two parties about murdered persons whose killers were not known. They are given from Zakah, even if they were rich.
(c) Those who borrowed money to guarantee the debts of other people. They are paid from Zakah to pay up the debts only when they are due and the guarantors could not pay either by themselves or with the help of the guaranteed persons.
- Fi Sabilillah: This includes the volunteering fighters for the cause of Allah who are not paid salaries. Those people are given, even if they were rich, what helps them in their fight such as some animal to ride if unable to walk.
- Ibn-us-Sabil This is the person who wants to travel or is traveling but does not have what is enough to get him to his destination. He is given from Zakah to help him reach his place provided his travel was not sinful.
One must pay Zakah to any of the types of people talked about before and must not give it to any other people including:
- Persons who have or earn enough money.
قال رسولُ الله : ”لا تَحِلُّ الصَّدَقَةُ لِغَنِىّ ولا لِذِى مِرَّةٍ سَوِىّ.“ رواه الترمذىّ وأبو داود. وفى رواية عند أبى داود: ”ولا لِقَوِىّ مُكْتَسِبٍ.“
It means: Zakah is not halal for the solvent and the able bodied person who can earn [his living] (at-Tirmidhiyy, Abu Dawud);
- Slaves who do not have agreement with their masters concerning their freedom;
- The descendents of Hashim, the son of ^Abdu Manaf, and al-Muttalib (al-Bukhariyy and Muslim),
روى مسلم قولَ رسولِ الله : ”إنَّ هَذِهِ الصَّدَقاتِ إنما هى أَوْساخُ الناسِ وإنها لا تَحِلُّ لِمُحَمَّدٍ ولا لآلِ مُحمدٍ.“
وروى البخارىّ ومسلم عن أبى هريرة رضى الله عنه قال: أَخَذَ الحَسَنُ بنُ علىّ تَمْرَةً من تَمرِ الصَّدَقةِ فَجَعَلَها فى فِيهِ، فقال النبىُّ : ”كخ كخ!“ ثم قال: ”أَمَا شَعَرْتَ أنَّا لا نَأكُلُ الصَّدَقةَ!“
and also their freed slaves خبر: ”مَوْلَى القَوْمِ مِنْهُم.“ رواه النَّسائِىّ , instead they are given a share from the spoils;
- Non-Muslims (al-Bukhariyy and Muslim); and
روى البخارىُّ ومسلم وغيرُهما قولَ رسولِ الله لمعاذ عندما وجَّهَه إلى اليَمَن: ”فَأَعْلِمْهُمْ أَنَّ اللهَ افْتَرَضَ عليهم صَدَقةً تُؤخَذُ من أَغنيائِهم فَتُردُّ على فُقَرائِهم.“
- Those (dependents) whom one must support such as one's wife, children, and poor parents. One does not give them under the name of al-fuqara' or al-masakin, but may give them under other categories such as being volunteering fighters.
It is sinful to withhold part or all of Zakah after it is due and one is able to pay it, or paying that which is not valid.
Prophet Muhammad said that some people who take from Zakah without any right shall be in Hell on the Judgement Day (al-Bukhariyy).
قال رسول الله : ”إنَّ رِجالًا يَتَخَوَّضُونَ فى مالِ اللهِ بِغَيرِ حَقّ فلهُمُ النارُ يومَ القِيامةِ.“ رواه البخارىّ
Hence, anyone who does not deserve Zakah must not take or be paid from it. Allah has pointed out the eight types of people who deserve to receive Zakah. It is invalid and sinful to give or spend the money of Zakah improperly, even in projects of building mosques, hospitals, schools and the like. This is an abuse of this obligatory money. Had Zakah been allowed to be spent for any good deed, the Prophet would not have said what means: Zakah is not allowed for the solvent and the able bodied person who can earn [his living]. Fi sabilillah does not include those things. It is for volunteering fighters only as stated in the explanation of the ayah 60 of Surat-ut-Tawbah mentioned earlier. However, according to Imam Ahmad, it may be paid to those who want to perform Hajj and cannot afford it.
It is an emphasized recommendation, on the first day of Shawwal (^Idul-Fitr day), to pray congregationally the ^Idul-Fitr prayer. This prayer can be performed starting about 30 minutes after sunrise until before Dhuhr time. It is two rak^ahs in which it is recommended to make seven takbirahs (saying Allahu Akbar) in the first rak^ahs (other than the opening takbirah) and five in the second (other than the takbirah for standing up). In between these takbirahs one may say dhikr such as:
سُبحانَ اللهِ والحمدُ للهِ ولا إله إلا اللهُ واللهُ أكبرُ ولا حولَ ولا قُوَّةَ إلا باللهِ العلىّ العظيمِ.
After the prayer, two speeches are given in which nine takbirahs are given in the first and seven in the second.
It is recommended to take a bath starting after midnight of (preceding) ^Idul-Fitr day, to stay up at night praying, reciting the Qur’an, etc. It is recommended that one eat dates before performing the ^Idul-Fitr prayer.
We ask Allah to help us be obedient in Ramadan and other times. We ask Allah to forgive our sins and end our life with Islam.
8-25-1432 • 7-27-2011
8-24-1436 • 6-11-2015
 The Ijma^ is the unanimous agreement of the mujtahids (top scholars of Islam) upon a religious matter after the death of Prophet Muhammad during a specific time.
 In Arabic, the moon is called hilal up to the first three nights. Afterwards, it is called qamar (Mukhtar-us-Sahah). Here, the hilal corresponds to the moon on the first night, i.e., the night that precedes the first day of the lunar month.
 Islamically, the night precedes the day. Hence, the first night of Ramadan is the night that precedes the first day of Ramadan.
 The ^adl is the Muslim who avoided the enormous sins, whose small sins did not exceed his good deeds, and who abided by the decent actions of his pious peers.
 “Asnal-Matalib, Sharh Rawd-it-Talib”, Vol 1, p 410.
 An-Nahl, 16 ﴾ قال الله تعالى:﴿ وبالنجم هم يهتدون
 “Hashiyat-ud-Dusuqiyy ^Alash-Sharh-il-Kabir li Mukhtasari Khalil”, Vol 1, p 469.
 “Kashshaf-ul-Qina^ ^an Matn-il-’Iqna^”, Vol 2, p 302.
 “Radd-ul-Muhtar ^alad-Durr-il-Mukhtar”, Vol 2, p 100.
 See “An-Nahj-us-Sawiyy”, published by our Association (AICP), 1992.
 Islamically, a person becomes pubescent when he or she attains to fifteen lunar years of age, or in the case of a male he has had his first ejaculation, and in the case of a female she has had her first menstruation, or has seen her maniyy, whichever comes first.
 A mumayyiz is the child who attains to an age at which he can answer questions when asked and understand when addressed, and according to some Islamic scholars, if taught, he can eat, drink, and perform the Istinja’ by oneself.
 Optional fasting includes fasting in other than Ramadan, which is not performed for a qada’ (make up), a nadhr, or a kaffarah. It is an optional and rewardable fasting. Examples of optional fasting are given in section XI.
 Masturbation is prohibited all the times, i.e., in Ramadan and otherwise and during the night and the day.
 It is recommended after finishing the meal to address the host by saying:
”أفطَرَ عندكُمُ الصَّائمُونَ، وأَكَلَ طَعَامَكُمُ الأَبْرارُ، وَصَلَّتْ علَيكُمُ المَلائِكَةُ.“ رواه أبو داود بإسناد صحيح عن أنس رضى الله عنه.
It means: “May Allah give you the reward of who gave food to a fasting person to break one’s fast, may the righteous people eat your food, and may the angels make supplication for you.” (Abu Dawud)
 We have not found a saying of a scholar that the Night of Qadr means the Night of Power, as claimed in some books.
 جاء ذلك فى حديث رواه الإمام أحمد والبيهقىّ والطبراني وغيرهم. ولفظه فى المسند عن واثلة بن الأسقع رضى الله عنه أن رسول الله قال: ”أُنزِلت صحفُ إبراهيم عليه السلام فى أول ليلة من رمضان، وأُنزلتِ التوراةُ لستّ مَضَينَ من رمضان، والإنجيلُ لثلاثَ عشرةَ خَلَت من رمضان، وأُنزل الفُرقانُ لأربع وعشرين خلَت من رمضان.“
In this narration it is mentioned that the Suhuf of Ibrahim were sent down on the first night of Ramadan. No mention of az-Zabur.
 The good things in this life include good health and deeds, knowledge, and righteous wife and children. The good things in the Hereafter include Paradise and being saved of the horrors of the Day of Judgement.
 روى مسلم عن أبى أيوب رضى الله عنه أن رسول الله قال: ”مَن صامَ رمضَانَ ثُم أَتبعَه سِتًّا من شَوَّال كان كصيام الدهر كُلّـِه.“ (٣٠*١٠ = ٣٠٠، ٦*١٠ = ٦٠؛ ٣٠٠+٦٠ = ٣٦٠ عدد أيام السنة). وخبر النسائىّ: ”صيامُ شهر رمضان بعشرة أشهر. وصيامُ ستة أيام من شوال بشهرين. فذلك صيام السنة.“
 روى الترمذىّ: ”تُعرض الأعمالُ يوم الاثنين والخميس. فأُحبُّ أن يُعرَضَ عملِى وأنا صائمٌ.“
 روى الشيخان: ”صومُ ثلاثةِ أيامٍ من كل شهرٍ صومُ الدهرِ كلّـِه.“
 عند الإمام أبى حنيفة زكاةُ الفطر نصفُ صاعٍ من قمحٍ أو صاعٌ من تمرٍ أو شعيرٍ أو زبيبٍ. ويجوز دفع القيمة (المختصر الحنفىّ واللباب ١٦٠/١). والصاعُ عنده ثمانيةُ أرطال بالعراقىّ، بينما عند الإمام الشافعىّ هو خمسة أرطال وثلث بالعراقىّ أى نحو ٢ كلغ (الكفاية لذوى العناية ١.٣). فيكون الصاعُ الحنفىُّ صاعًا ونصفًا شافعيًّا. ٢/١ صاع قمح = ١،٥ كلغ قمح = ٣،٣ ليبرة. ١ صاع = ٣ كلغ تمر أو شعير أو زبيب = ٦،٦ ليبرة.
According to Imam Abu Hanifah, one pays 1/2 sa^ of wheat (≈ 1.5 kg = 3.3 lb), 1 sa^ of dates, barley, or raisins (≈ 3 kg = 6.6 lb), or their monetary value.